The primary reason Mr. Moneybags makes so much money with robots is that patents that protect the design of the robots chill downstream innovation, slowing or preventing others from making robots that do the same work.
Much of the robotics technology that we have today has been funded with government money. It is a public policy decision as to whether or not we should grant patents to inventors that are supported with government money.
We could make a law that says that if you create an invention that was funded by government grants, you don't get a patent for that invention. The government gets that patent and then the government puts the patent in the public domain. If robotics technology finds its way into the public domain, then more people will benefit from the technology than otherwise.
Whether or not the people who own the means of automation should prosper at the expense of the laborers displaced by technology is still a public policy decision. That is still a question of suffrage.
As to your conclusion that we need a tax system that transfers the wealth from the rich to the poor, I have named one starting point above. Here is another one that I like to call, "The Simple Share Tax". The idea is from one of my favorite economists, Dean Baker. Here's how it works:
The Simple Share Tax (SST) is voluntary. Any corporation can choose this tax at a lower rate or a higher tax rate running on the system we have today.
Under the SST, every corporation must give 25% of the outstanding shares to government in the form of non-voting shares. When the corporation pays a dividend, the government is paid. When the company is sold, the government is paid. When there is a share buyback, the government is paid.
The percentage of shares depends on the tax rate you want to set. Ideally, you want it to be lower than the other way, but it can be lower because the administrative costs of the SST are far, far lower than the old way. And the tax is nearly impossible to evade. We'd want that to deprive the tax avoidance industry of money.
The point I want to make here is that by the time you get around to taxing income, you're too late. It's time to be more proactive and think outside of the box that liberals have created for themselves at the pleasure of conservatives.